Let’s begin with a little quiz: Across the earth, there are 7 continents and 197 countries. How many languages are spoken?
The answer is around 7,000, but if this number surprises you, it’s because you suffer from the distorted perspective that half of the 7.8 billion inhabitants of the planet express themselves or communicate through only about 20 of them (Arabic, English, Spanish, French, Hindi, Mandarin, Portuguese…), while the other 97% of these 7,000 languages have a total number of speakers that does not exceed 4% of the population.
Our world linguistic heritage, as rich it may be, is very fragile. The overwhelming majority of these 7,000 languages have no written tradition, and today are only spoken by a handful of old people. This heritage is both the fruit and the guarantor of humans’ cultural diversity, and is no less significant than the biodiversity of plant and animal species. The crisis it faces can be considered the sixth major extinction that threatens the world.
“We estimate that 50% of the 7,000 languages will disappear by the end of this century, a rate to be compared with the 26% of mammal species or 14% of bird species threatened with extinction according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature,” says Evangelia Adamou, a linguist at the CNRS laboratory, LACITO (Languages and Civilizations with an Oral Tradition).
This threat of massive linguistic extinction is what motivated researchers to create the Pangloss collection in 1995, named after a character in Voltaire’s “Candide,” whose name in Greek means, “all languages.” Equipped with a website making it accessible to the general public, this collection is to linguistic diversity what protected areas are to biodiversity. Its sound library has been enriched over the years and now contains more than 3,600 audio or video recordings in 170 languages, nearly half of which are transcribed and annotated.
Read more: Worldcrunch