In his new book, Agreement Beyond Phi, MIT linguist Shigeru Miyagawa explores the concept of universal languages by analyzing similarities between a range of languages.
This is a topic in linguistics that gives a fresh take on the science of words and their construction, and Miyagawa is hopeful that his research and analysis will allow him to apply his theory to more languages out of the Indo-European spectrum.
In his book, he makes the argument that all languages have allocutive agreement, which is defined as “a morphological feature in which the gender of an addressee is marked overtly in an utterance using fully grammaticalized markers.”
For the non-linguists out there, it’s kind of like a form of subject-verb agreement that allows for formality to change the way that a verb is spoken. When speaking French, for example, to say to friend that “he has” something would be “tu as” but for a professor, or doctor, the polite version would be “vous avez.”
This is notable in Basque, as well as Japanese, which has a certain method of “politeness making.” In the book, he details the similarities between languages like French, English, Basque, Japanese, Dinka, and Jingpo, but he would like to continue exploring further.
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